1. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia. It occurs in over 50% of patients diagnosed with dementia. Alzheimer's has a gradual onset with progressive decline. It is associated with brain inflammation and lesions, neuronal degeneration, and neurotransmitter abnormalities. Patients will experience memory loss, aphasia (inability to communicate effectively), apraxia (inability to perform normal motor tasks), agnosia (inability to recognize familiar people or objects), time disorientation, social withdrawal, and other behavioral changes.
Available treatment options for Alzheimer's only relieve symptoms and do not slow disease progression Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors maintain memory function and are approved for early to mid-stage dementia. They work by increasing levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Donepezil (Aricept) is the first line agent and alternative agents include rivastigmine (Exelon) and galantamine (Razadyne). For mid-stage and severe dementia, memantine (Namenda) or donepezil may be used to treat symptoms. Memantine blocks NMDA receptors, inhibiting the activity of glutamate which may contribute to Alzheimer's symptoms.
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Also Read: How To Prevent Alzheimers Disease